Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz citátov

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Dátum narodenia: 1. júl 1646
Dátum úmrtia: 14. november 1716

Reklama

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz bol nemecký filozof, predstaviteľ novovekého racionalizmu, fyzik, matematik, diplomat, jeden z posledných polyhistorov a iniciátorov ekumenických snáh. Leibnizovi išlo o hľadanie kompromisu medzi apriórnou vedou, teológiou a empirizmom.

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Citáty Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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„My philosophical views approach somewhat closely those of the late Countess of Conway“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Context: My philosophical views approach somewhat closely those of the late Countess of Conway, and hold a middle position between Plato and Democritus, because I hold that all things take place mechanically as Democritus and Descartes contend against the views of Henry More and his followers, and hold too, nevertheless, that everything takes place according to a living principle and according to final causes — all things are full of life and consciousness, contrary to the views of the Atomists. Letter to Thomas Burnet (1697), as quoted in Platonism, Aristotelianism and Cabalism in the Philosophy of Leibniz (1938) by Joseph Politella, p. 18

„Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Context: Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions. And supposing there were a machine, so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, it might be conceived as increased in size, while keeping the same proportions, so that one might go into it as into a mill. That being so, we should, on examining its interior, find only parts which work one upon another, and never anything by which to explain a perception. Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for. La monadologie (17).

„TO LOVE is to find pleasure in the happiness of others.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Context: TO LOVE is to find pleasure in the happiness of others. Thus the habit of loving someone is nothing other than BENEVOLENCE by which we want the good of others, not for the profit that we gain from it, but because it is agreeable to us in itself. CHARITY is a general benevolence. And JUSTICE is charity in accordance with wisdom. … so that one does not do harm to someone without necessity, and that one does as much good as one can, but especially where it is best employed. "A Dialogue" (after 1695), as quoted in The Shorter Leibniz Texts (2006) http://books.google.com/books?id=oFoCY3xJ8nkC&dq edited by Lloyd H. Strickland, p. 170

„Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Context: Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions. And supposing there were a machine, so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, it might be conceived as increased in size, while keeping the same proportions, so that one might go into it as into a mill. That being so, we should, on examining its interior, find only parts which work one upon another, and never anything by which to explain a perception. Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for. La monadologie (17).

„In whatever manner God created the world, it would always have been regular and in a certain general order. God, however, has chosen the most perfect, that is to say, the one which is at the same time the simplest in hypothesis and the richest in phenomena.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Discours de métaphysique (1686); Leibniz famously tried to show that ours is the best of all possible worlds (see also Monadologie (53 & 54) below and compare Maimonides from Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), "Whatever is formed of matter receives the most perfect form possible in that species of matter.") These attempts were mercilessly parodied in Voltaire's Candide. Quotations from Voltaire's novel are often mistakenly attributed to Leibniz. Other statements by Leibniz upon the subject include these: S'il n'y avait pas le meilleur (optimum) parmi tous les mondes possibles, Dieu n'en aurait produit aucun. If there were no best among all possible worlds, God would not have created one. Théodicée (1710)ː I. 8 I do not believe that a world without evil, preferable in order to ours, is possible; otherwise it would have been preferred. It is necessary to believe that the mixture of evil has produced the greatest possible good: otherwise the evil would not have been permitted. The combination of all the tendencies to the good has produced the best; but as there are goods that are incompatible together, this combination and this result can introduce the destruction of some good, and as a result some evil. Letter to Bourguet (late 1712)], as translated in The Shorter Leibniz Texts (2006) http://books.google.com/books?id=oFoCY3xJ8nkC&dq edited by Lloyd H. Strickland, p. 208

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„To love is to be delighted by the happiness of someone, or to experience pleasure upon the happiness of another. I define this as true love.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
The Elements of True Piety (c. 1677), The Shorter Leibniz Texts (2006) http://books.google.com/books?id=oFoCY3xJ8nkC&dq edited by Lloyd H. Strickland, p. 189

„Nature does not make leaps.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Avant-propos to Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain (1704). A later, more famous Latin version — "Natura non facit saltus" — is from the Philosophia Botanica (1751) by Linnaeus. A variant translation is "natura non saltum facit" (literally, "Nature does not make a jump") ( Extract of page 289 https://books.google.com/books?id=goW6JsEUz4EC&pg=PA289).

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„I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something purely relative, as time; an order of coexistences, as time is an order of successions.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Third letter http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~berciu/PHILIP/TEACHING/PHYS340/EXTRA/FILES/Leibniz-ClarkeA.pdf to Samuel Clarke, February 25, 1716

„Music is a hidden arithmetic exercise of the soul, which does not know that it is counting.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz
Letter to Christian Goldbach, April 17, 1712. Arthur Schopenhauer paraphrased this quotation in the first book of Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung: Musica est exercitium metaphysices occultum nescientis se philosophari animi. (Music is a hidden metaphysical exercise of the soul, which does not know that it is philosophizing.)

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