Nikolaj Alexandrovič Berďajev citáty

Nikolaj Alexandrovič Berďajev foto
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Nikolaj Alexandrovič Berďajev

Dátum narodenia: 6. marec 1874
Dátum úmrtia: 24. marec 1948

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Nikolaj Alexandrovič Berďajev bol ruský filozof, náboženský neoromantik, predstaviteľ bohohľadačstva.

Berďajevov záujem sa v prvom období sústreďoval na etickú problematiku, v druhom období na nábožensko-mystickú, v treťom na historiozofickú a v štvrtom na personalistickú problematiku.

Mystiku interpretuje ako prostriedok vnútorného oslobodzovania sa človeka. Marxizmus podľa Berďajeva zacláňa človeka triedou, a preto nie je schopný riešiť problém aktivity a slobody osobnosti. Berďajevovo filozofické myslenie vyúsťuje do tematizácie tvorivosti ako základu osobnosti. Tvorivosť má podľa neho dialektickú povahu bohočlovečenstva, čiže rodenia sa boha v človeku a človeka v bohu.

S Berďajevovým dielom sa spája tendencia kresťanskej renesancie: spájanie myšlienky humanizmu a renesancie s tým, čo ľudstvu prinieslo krestanstvo. Strojová civilizácia Západu je podla Berďajeva slepou uličkou vývoja ľudstva a vedie do priepasti. Preto sa ľudstvo musí vrátiť ku koncepciám, ktoré ho môžu vyviesť z bludného kruhu, ktorý ináč smeruje k sebazničeniu. Zvláštnu úlohu bude mať v tomto návrate Rusko . Rusko prostredníctvom svojej literatúry už dávno vyzývalo k náboženskému pretvoreniu ľudstva.

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Citáty Nikolaj Alexandrovič Berďajev

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„Orthodox thought has never been suppressed by the idea of Divine justice and it never forgot the idea of Divine love. Chiefly — it did not define man from the point of view of Divine justice but from the idea of transfiguration and Deification of man and cosmos.“

— Nikolai Berdyaev
Context: The greater part of Eastern teachers of the Church, from Clement of Alexandria to Maximus the Confessor, were supporters of Apokatastasis, of universal salvation and resurrection. And this is characteristic of (contemporary) Russian religious thought. Orthodox thought has never been suppressed by the idea of Divine justice and it never forgot the idea of Divine love. Chiefly — it did not define man from the point of view of Divine justice but from the idea of transfiguration and Deification of man and cosmos. "The Truth of Orthodoxy" as translated in Vestnik of the Russian West European Patriarchal Exarchate (1952)

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„The uniting of Orthodoxy with state absolutism came about on the soil of a non-belief in the Divineness of the earth, in the earthly future of mankind; Orthodoxy gave away the earth into the hands of the state because of its own non-belief in man and mankind, because of its nihilistic attitude towards the world.“

— Nikolai Berdyaev
Context: The uniting of Orthodoxy with state absolutism came about on the soil of a non-belief in the Divineness of the earth, in the earthly future of mankind; Orthodoxy gave away the earth into the hands of the state because of its own non-belief in man and mankind, because of its nihilistic attitude towards the world. Orthodoxy does not believe in the religious ordering of human life upon the earth, and it compensates for its own hopeless pessimism by a call for the forceful ordering of it by state authority. [http://www.berdyaev.com/berdiaev/berd_lib/1907_135_4.html "Nihilism  On  A  Religious Soil" (6 May 1907)]

„There is absolute truth in anarchism and it is to be seen in its attitude to the sovereignty of the state and to every form of state absolutism.“

— Nikolai Berdyaev
Context: There is absolute truth in anarchism and it is to be seen in its attitude to the sovereignty of the state and to every form of state absolutism. … The religious truth of anarchism consists in this, that power over man is bound up with sin and evil, that a state of perfection is a state where there is no power of man over man, that is to say, anarchy. The Kingdom of God is freedom and the absence of such power... the Kingdom of God is anarchy. Slavery and Freedom (1939), p. 147

„Orthodoxy is that form of Christianity which suffered the least distortion in its substance as a result of human history.“

— Nikolai Berdyaev
Context: The Christian world doesn't know Orthodoxy too well. It only knows the external and for the most part, the negative features of the Orthodox Church and not the inner spiritual treasure. Orthodoxy was locked inside itself, it did not have the spirit of proselytism and did not reveal itself to the world. For the longest time, Orthodoxy did not have such world-wide significance as did Catholicism and Protestantism. It remained apart form passionate religious battles for hundreds of years, for centuries it lived under the protection of large empires (Byzantium and Russia), and preserved its eternal truth from the destructive processes of world history. It is characteristic of Orthodoxy's religious nature that it was not sufficiently actualized nor exposed externally, it was not militant, and precisely because of this the heavenly truth of Christian revelation was not distorted so much. Orthodoxy is that form of Christianity which suffered the least distortion in its substance as a result of human history. The Orthodox Church had its moments of historical sin, for the most part in connection with its external dependence on the State, but the Church's teaching, her inner spiritual path was not subject to distortion. The Orthodox Church is primarily the Church of tradition, in contrast to the Catholic Church, which is the Church of authority, and to the Protestant Churches which are essentially churches of individual faith. The Orthodox Church was never subject to a single externally authoritarian organization and it unshakenly was held together by the strength of internal tradition and not by any external authority. Out of all forms of Christianity it is the Orthodox Church which remained more closely tied to early Christianity. [http://www.kosovo.net/ortruth.html "The Truth of Orthodoxy" as translated in Vestnik of the Russian West European Patriarchal Exarchate (1952)]

„We live in a nightmare of falsehoods, and there are few who are sufficiently awake and aware to see things as they are. Our first duty is to clear away illusions and recover a sense of reality.“

— Nikolai Berdyaev
Context: We live in a nightmare of falsehoods, and there are few who are sufficiently awake and aware to see things as they are. Our first duty is to clear away illusions and recover a sense of reality. If war should come, it will do so on account of our delusions, for which our hag-ridden conscience attempts to find moral excuses. To recover a sense of reality is to recover the truth about ourselves and the world in which we live, and thereby to gain the power of keeping this world from flying asunder. p. 80

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