Maria Montessoriová citáty

Maria Montessoriová fotka
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Maria Montessoriová

Dátum narodenia: 31. august 1870
Dátum úmrtia: 6. máj 1952

Maria Montessoriová bola predstaviteľka reformnej pedagogiky.

Mária Montessoriová, talianska lekárka, zakladateľka predškolskej výchovy na princípe individuálneho systému. Založila Dom detstva pri Ríme v roku 1907. Veľkú pozornosť venovala detskému zdraviu na periférii Ríma. V herni boli stoly, stoličky, hračky a učiteľka viedla deti na samostatnú činnosť. Bola jednoduchá, stručná a v nej malo dieťa rozvíjať svoje zmysly. V hre zasiahla učiteľka len ako „svetelný lúč“, aby si dieťa neublížilo. Viedla ho na sebavýchovu pri používaní vecí, poznávaní farieb, vôní, a to aj so zatvorenými očami, ale popri tom uplatňovala aj chvíle úplného ticha.

Dieťa si volilo samostatne svoju činnosť, pri ktorej sa súčasne rozvíjajú telesné a duševné schopnosti v kultúrnom prostredí.

V základnej škole opäť žiak vlastnou iniciatívou učí sa poznávať učivo a učiteľ je viac podnecovateľom ako sprostredkovateľom poznatkov. Deti v prírode nadobúdajú vedomosti o nej a nie z kníh, obrazov a podobne. Zaviedla „cvičenia praktického života“, na sebaobsluhu, mravné prežívanie pri stretnutí s prácou, a to pre všetky deti, nie len budúcich remeselníkov.

Učebný plán rozširuje o vyučovacie predmety, ale zvyšuje aj náročnosť podľa skupín detí: 6 – 9 ročné, 9 – 12 ročné. Podľa vekovej skladby zdokonaľujú si žiaci sebavýchovu predovšetkým sociálne správanie. Pritom nikdy neurčila množstvo učiva a rozvrh hodín pre vyučovacie predmety.

Učiteľ si viedol pedagogický denník a v ňom evidenciu o úrovni každého žiaka, v každom vyučovacom predmete a o celej triede. Minimálna hranica počtu detí v triede je 15. Po 12. roku má žiak „rámcový plán“. Obsahuje výučbu kultúry vyjadrovania, hudbu, výtvarné umenie. Druhou skupinou sú morálka, matematika, cudzie jazyky. Tretiu skupinu tvoria pragmatické predmety, žiak študuje živú prírodu, fyziku, chémiu, techniku, dejepis. V škole nejde Montessoriovej o vedu, ale o človeka. Úlohou školy je vzdelanie človeka, realizácia jeho osobnosti vo vzťahu k ostatným jedincom, k svetu a k Bohu.

Didaktika a metodika Montessoriovej tvorí ucelený program na sebarealizáciu žiaka . Učiteľ rozhodujúcim spôsobom usmerňuje rozvoj osobnosti žiaka, jeho fyzické, intelektuálne, emocionálne a eticko-morálne kvality. Ústredná myšlienka montessoriovej pedagogiky je „pomoc ľudskej bytosti, aby dosiahla svoju nezávislosť“.

Základný systém z hľadiska rozčlenenia pedagogického materiálu:

cvičenia každodenného života

cvičenia na rozvoj zmyslov

matematické cvičenia

jazykové cvičenia

kozmické cvičenia Hlavné myšlienky, princípy a metódy Montessoriovej pedagogiky:

dieťa má urobiť len to, čo urobí samo z vlastných síl

prostredie na výchovu má byť také, aby vyhovovalo potrebám detí a nie dospelých

podporovať samostatnosť a sústredenosť detí na činnosť a ich individualita

dôležitosť rozvíjania všetkých zmyslov

princíp postupnej náročnosti sa má prejavovať najmä v prostredí, v jeho koncipovaní, v hračkách

osobnosť vychovávateľa a učiteľa sa má vyznačovať vysokou odbornosťou a úsilím pomôcť dieťaťu v jeho vlastnom vývoji a nie vo vývoji podľa predstáv učiteľa, od učiteľa sa vyžaduje empatia,sledovanie a rozvíjanie potrieb detí

Citáty Maria Montessoriová

„If help and salvation are to come they can only come from the children, for the children are the makers of men.“

—  Maria Montessori

Part I : The Child's Part in World Reconstruction, p. 4.
The Absorbent Mind (1949)
Kontext: If help and salvation are to come they can only come from the children, for the children are the makers of men.
The child is endowed with unknown powers, which can guide us to a radiant future. If what we really want is a new world, then education must take as its aim the development of these hidden possibilities.

„That which the educator must seek is to be able to see the child as Jesus saw him.“

—  Maria Montessori

The Secret of Childhood, p. 108.
Kontext: We have in ourselves tendencies that are not good and which flourish like weeds in a field. (Original sin). These tendencies are many; they fall into seven groups, known of old as the Seven deadly sins. All deadly sins tend to separate us from the child; for the child compared to us, is not only purer but has mysterious qualities, which we adults as a rule cannot perceive, but in which we must believe with faith, for Jesus spoke to them so clearly and insistently that all the Evangelists recorded His words: Unless ye be converted and become as little children, ye shall nor enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. That which the educator must seek is to be able to see the child as Jesus saw him. It is with this endeavour, thus defined and delimited, that we wish to deal.

„Such prizes and punishments are, if I may be allowed the expression, the bench of the soul, the instrument of slavery for the spirit.“

—  Maria Montessori

Zdroj: The Montessori Method Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in 'The Children's Houses' with Additions and Revisions by the Author

„The children are now working as if I did not exist.“

—  Maria Montessori

Zdroj: The Absorbent Mind (1949), Ch. 27 : The Teacher's Preparation, p. 283; part of this has become paraphrased as :
Kontext: One who has drunk at the fountain of spiritual happiness says good-by of his own accord to the satisfactions that come from a higher professional status … What is the greatest sign of success for a teacher thus transformed? It is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist."

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„He is a serene and pleasant man where he is powerful through being efficient, but is domineering where he is served.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 5 : Discipline, p. 100.
Kontext: Let us picture to ourselves a clever and proficient workman, capable, not only of producing much and perfect work, but of giving advice in his workshop, because of his ability to control and direct the general activity of the environment in which he works. The man who is thus master of his environment will be able to smile before the anger of others, showing that great mastery of himself which comes from consciousness of his ability to do things. We should not, however, be in the least surprised to know that in his home this capable workman scolded his wife if the soup was not to his taste, or not ready at the appointed time. In his home, he is no longer the capable workman; the skilled workman here is the wife, who serves him and prepares his food for him. He is a serene and pleasant man where he is powerful through being efficient, but is domineering where he is served. Perhaps if he should learn how to prepare his soup he might become a perfect man! The man who, through his own efforts, is able to perform all the actions necessary for his comfort and development in life, conquers himself, and in doing so multiplies his abilities and perfects himself as an individual.
We must make of the future generation, powerful men, and by that we mean men who are independent and free.

„To prepare teachers in the method of the experimental sciences is not an easy matter.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 1 : A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science, p. 7.
Kontext: To prepare teachers in the method of the experimental sciences is not an easy matter. When we shall have instructed them in anthropometry and psychometry in the most minute manner possible, we shall have only created machines, whose usefulness will be most doubtful. Indeed, if it is after this fashion that we are to initiate our teachers into experiment, we shall remain forever in the field of theory. The teachers of the old school, prepared according to the principles of metaphysical philosophy, understood the ideas of certain men regarded as authorities, and moved the muscles of speech in talking of them, and the muscles of the eye in reading their theories. Our scientific teachers, instead, are familiar with certain instruments and know how to move the muscles of the hand and arm in order to use these instruments; besides this, they have an intellectual preparation which consists of a series of typical tests, which they have, in a barren and mechanical way, learned how to apply.
The difference is not substantial, for profound differences cannot exist in exterior technique alone, but lie rather within the inner man. Not with all our initiation into scientific experiment have we prepared new masters, for, after all, we have left them standing without the door of real experimental science; we have not admitted them to the noblest and most profound phase of such study, — to that experience which makes real scientists.

„The teachers of the old school, prepared according to the principles of metaphysical philosophy, understood the ideas of certain men regarded as authorities, and moved the muscles of speech in talking of them, and the muscles of the eye in reading their theories. Our scientific teachers, instead, are familiar with certain instruments and know how to move the muscles of the hand and arm in order to use these instruments; besides this, they have an intellectual preparation which consists of a series of typical tests, which they have, in a barren and mechanical way, learned how to apply.
The difference is not substantial, for profound differences cannot exist in exterior technique alone, but lie rather within the inner man.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 1 : A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science, p. 7.
Kontext: To prepare teachers in the method of the experimental sciences is not an easy matter. When we shall have instructed them in anthropometry and psychometry in the most minute manner possible, we shall have only created machines, whose usefulness will be most doubtful. Indeed, if it is after this fashion that we are to initiate our teachers into experiment, we shall remain forever in the field of theory. The teachers of the old school, prepared according to the principles of metaphysical philosophy, understood the ideas of certain men regarded as authorities, and moved the muscles of speech in talking of them, and the muscles of the eye in reading their theories. Our scientific teachers, instead, are familiar with certain instruments and know how to move the muscles of the hand and arm in order to use these instruments; besides this, they have an intellectual preparation which consists of a series of typical tests, which they have, in a barren and mechanical way, learned how to apply.
The difference is not substantial, for profound differences cannot exist in exterior technique alone, but lie rather within the inner man. Not with all our initiation into scientific experiment have we prepared new masters, for, after all, we have left them standing without the door of real experimental science; we have not admitted them to the noblest and most profound phase of such study, — to that experience which makes real scientists.

„We give the name scientist to the type of man who has felt experiment to be a means guiding him to search out the deep truth of life, to lift a veil from its fascinating secrets, and who, in this pursuit, has felt arising within him a love for the mysteries of nature, so passionate as to annihilate the thought of himself.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 1 : A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science, p. 8.
Kontext: We give the name scientist to the type of man who has felt experiment to be a means guiding him to search out the deep truth of life, to lift a veil from its fascinating secrets, and who, in this pursuit, has felt arising within him a love for the mysteries of nature, so passionate as to annihilate the thought of himself. The scientist is not the clever manipulator of instruments, he is the worshipper of nature and he bears the external symbols of his passion as does the follower of some religious order. To this body of real scientists belong those who, forgetting, like the Trappists of the Middle Ages, the world about them, live only in the laboratory, careless often in matters of food and dress because they no longer think of themselves; those who, through years of unwearied use of the microscope, become blind; those who in their scientific ardour inoculate themselves with tuberculosis germs; those who handle the excrement of cholera patients in their eagerness to learn the vehicle through which the diseases are transmitted; and those who, knowing that a certain chemical preparation may be an explosive, still persist in testing their theories at the risk of their lives. This is the spirit of the men of science, to whom nature freely reveals her secrets, crowning their labours with the glory of discovery.
There exists, then, the "spirit" of the scientist, a thing far above his mere "mechanical skill," and the scientist is at the height of his achievement when the spirit has triumphed over the mechanism. When he has reached this point, science will receive from him not only new revelations of nature, but philosophic syntheses of pure thought.

„The man who, through his own efforts, is able to perform all the actions necessary for his comfort and development in life, conquers himself, and in doing so multiplies his abilities and perfects himself as an individual.
We must make of the future generation, powerful men, and by that we mean men who are independent and free.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 5 : Discipline, p. 100.
Kontext: Let us picture to ourselves a clever and proficient workman, capable, not only of producing much and perfect work, but of giving advice in his workshop, because of his ability to control and direct the general activity of the environment in which he works. The man who is thus master of his environment will be able to smile before the anger of others, showing that great mastery of himself which comes from consciousness of his ability to do things. We should not, however, be in the least surprised to know that in his home this capable workman scolded his wife if the soup was not to his taste, or not ready at the appointed time. In his home, he is no longer the capable workman; the skilled workman here is the wife, who serves him and prepares his food for him. He is a serene and pleasant man where he is powerful through being efficient, but is domineering where he is served. Perhaps if he should learn how to prepare his soup he might become a perfect man! The man who, through his own efforts, is able to perform all the actions necessary for his comfort and development in life, conquers himself, and in doing so multiplies his abilities and perfects himself as an individual.
We must make of the future generation, powerful men, and by that we mean men who are independent and free.

„To stimulate life, leaving it free, however, to unfold itself, that is the first duty of the educator.“

—  Maria Montessori

Zdroj: The Discovery of the Child (1948), Ch. 8 : The Exercises, p. 141
Variant translation:
This then is the first duty of an educator: to stir up life but leave it free to develop.
Kontext: This is our mission: to cast a ray of light and pass on. I compare the effects of these first lessons the impressions of a solitary wanderer who is walking serene and happy in a shady grove, meditating; that is leaving his inner thought free to wander. Suddenly a church bell pealing out nearby recalls to himself; then he feels more keenly that peaceful bliss which had already been born, though dormant, within him.
To stimulate life, leaving it free, however, to unfold itself, that is the first duty of the educator.
For such a delicate mission great art is required to suggest the right moment and to limit intervention, last one should disturb or lead astray rather than help the soul which is coming to life and which will live by virtue of it's own efforts.
This art must accompany the scientific method, because the simplicity of our lessons bears a great resemblance to experiments in experimental psychology.

„This is our mission: to cast a ray of light and pass on.“

—  Maria Montessori

Zdroj: The Discovery of the Child (1948), Ch. 8 : The Exercises, p. 141
Variant translation:
This then is the first duty of an educator: to stir up life but leave it free to develop.
Kontext: This is our mission: to cast a ray of light and pass on. I compare the effects of these first lessons the impressions of a solitary wanderer who is walking serene and happy in a shady grove, meditating; that is leaving his inner thought free to wander. Suddenly a church bell pealing out nearby recalls to himself; then he feels more keenly that peaceful bliss which had already been born, though dormant, within him.
To stimulate life, leaving it free, however, to unfold itself, that is the first duty of the educator.
For such a delicate mission great art is required to suggest the right moment and to limit intervention, last one should disturb or lead astray rather than help the soul which is coming to life and which will live by virtue of it's own efforts.
This art must accompany the scientific method, because the simplicity of our lessons bears a great resemblance to experiments in experimental psychology.

„It seems as though a new epoch were in preparation, a truly human epoch“

—  Maria Montessori

Antropologia Pedagogica (1910), translated as Pedagogical Anthropology (1913), p. 259.
Kontext: It seems as though a new epoch were in preparation, a truly human epoch, and as though the end had almost come of those evolutionary periods which sum up the history of the heroic struggles of humanity; an epoch in which an assured peace will promote the brotherhood of man, while morality and love will take their place as the highest form of human superiority. In such an epoch there will really be superior human beings, there will really be men strong in morality and in sentiment. Perhaps in this way the reign of woman in approaching, when the enigma of her anthropological superiority will be deciphered. Woman was always the custodian of human sentiment, morality and honour, and in these respects man always has yielded women the palm.

„The domineering habit develops side by side with helplessness.“

—  Maria Montessori

Ch. 5 : Discipline, p. 100.
Kontext: The peril of servilism and dependence lies not only in that "useless consuming of life," which leads to helplessness, but in the development of individual traits which indicate all too plainly a regrettable perversion and degeneration of the normal man. I refer to the domineering and tyrannical behaviour with examples of which we are all only too familiar. The domineering habit develops side by side with helplessness. It is the outward sign of the state of feeling of him who conquers through the work of others. Thus it often happens that the master is a tyrant toward his servant. It is the spirit of the task-master toward the slave.

„One who has drunk at the fountain of spiritual happiness says good-by of his own accord to the satisfactions that come from a higher professional status“

—  Maria Montessori

Zdroj: The Absorbent Mind (1949), Ch. 27 : The Teacher's Preparation, p. 283; part of this has become paraphrased as :
Kontext: One who has drunk at the fountain of spiritual happiness says good-by of his own accord to the satisfactions that come from a higher professional status … What is the greatest sign of success for a teacher thus transformed? It is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist."

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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